Empedocles of Acragas
This quartet of elementary substances, in their turn mixed together in various proportions to generate perceptible substances.  Expressed in rectangular diagrammatic form, each adjacent element can be seen to possess a common quality; hence all forms of the elements are, in principle, interconvertible.  Thus by changing the form or forms (transmutations) of bodies,  Nature transmutes the underlying basic, or primary matter into different substances.
 


   hot


  FIRE
   AIR
    dry


  moist

EARTH
WATER


   cold