|1606 AD||Andreas Libau publishes Alchemia, the first systematic treatise in chemistry.|
|1609||Van't Helmont, the last alchemist, the first chemist|
|1637||René Descartes publishes Discours de la méthode, outlining the four canons of scientific reasoning.|
|1638||Descartes introduces the concept of an 'aether' filling all of space in order to explain the tides.|
|1643||Evangelista Torricelli measures atmospheric pressure with his mercury barometer.|
|1644||Descartes publishes Principia philosophiae, containing the vortex theory of planetary motion and arguments concerning the impossibility of vacua.|
|1647||Pascal publishes work on vacua, confirming Toricelli’s results.|
|1648||Pascal uses the barometer to show that the atmosphere
Jean Baptiste Van Helmont publishes Ortus Medicinae, containing a description of carbon dioxide.
|1650||First chemistry laboratory established at Leyden University.|
|1651||Guericke demonstrates pressure of atmosphere using
Sealed thermometer invented by Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
|1660||(to 1678) Robert Boyle conducts experiments on gases
and studies the effects of combustion and respiration on the atmosphere.
Royal Society of London founded.
|1661||Boyle publishes The Sceptical Chymist, defending an atomic theory of chemical reactions.|
|1662||Boyle’s law (which he did not discover) stated explicitly in the second edition of Boyle’s New Experiments Physico-Mechanical.|
|1665||Royal Society Secretary begins Philosophical Transactions, the first journal of a strictly scientific nature.|
|1666||Académie Royale des Sciences founded.|
|1671||Issac Newton does some chemical research|
|1675||Robert Boyle publishes first book on electricity: Experiments and Notes About the Mechanical Origine or Production of Electricity.|
|1678||Christiaan Huygens advances his wave theory of light, fully developed in Traité de la lumière (1690).|
|1714||Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury glass thermometer.|
|1723||George Ernst Stahl publishes Fundamenta chymiae dogmaticae et experimentalis, advancing the phlogiston theory (first outlined in 1697).|
|1742||Anders Celcius proposes the centigrade thermometer scale.|
|1745||Petrus van Musschenbroek and Kleist discover the principle of the Leyden jar, in which static electricity charges could be stored (announced by Musschenbroek in 1746).|