|1752 AD||Benjamin Franklin shows that lightning is electricity.
Joseph Black conducts a series of experiments on alkaline and alkaline-earth carbonates, bringing pneumatic chemistry back into vogue.
|1754||Joseph Black discovers "fixed air" (carbon dioxide).|
|1761||Joseph Black discovers that ice absorbs heat without changing temperature when melting|
|1766||Henry Cavendish isolates hydrogen and defines it as pure phlogiston.|
|1771||Priestly discovers that plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen.|
|1772||Antoine Lavoisier experiments
Nitrogen isolated by Daniel Rutherford and Henry Cavendish.
|1774||Priestley discovers oxygen (dephlogisticated air), and visits Lavoisier in Paris (discovered independently by Scheele in 1775).|
|1778||Carl Scheele and Lavoisier discover that air is composed mostly of nitrogen and oxygen.|
|1780||Lavoisier and Pierre Laplace publish a memoir on heat, which concludes that respiration is a form of combustion.|
|1781||Lavoisier states law of conservation
Priestley creates water by igniting hydrogen and oxygen.
Kant publishes The Critique of Pure Reason, which asserts the impossibility of knowledge regarding the existence of atoms.
|1783||Lavoisier proposes new chemistry, based on the notion of a chemical element.|
|1786||Kant declares that chemistry cannot be a science in the proper sense of the term.|
|1787||Méthode de Nomenclature Chimique published by Lavoisier, Guyton, Berthollet, and Fourcoy.|
|1789||Lavoisier publishes Traité Élémentaire de chimie.|
|1797||Joseph Louis Proust formulates law of definite proportions.|
|1798||Count Rumford proposes the idea that heat is a form of energy.|
|1799||Alessandro Volta invents electric
battery (announced in 1800).
The Royal Institution is founded in London.
|1800||William Nicholson discovers electrolysis.
Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle use electrolysis to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen.
Herschel discovers infrared radiation.
|1801||Johann Wilhelm Ritter discovers
John Dalton formulates the law of partial pressures.
Founding of the Royal Institute (Great Britain).
|1802||Dalton compiles his first table
of atomic weights (published in 1805).
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac formulates the law of combining gases in terms of rational and simple relations of volume.
|1803||Dalton advances atomic theory,
contending that matter is composed of matter of different weights.
Dalton states law of multiple proportions.
|1806||Davy’s first Bakerian lecture, “On Some Chemical Agencies of Electricity.”|
|1807||Davy discovers potassium.|
|1808||Dalton’s atomic theory of chemical
combinations laid out in A New System of Chemical Philosophy.
Davy develops the first electric powered lamp.
|1810||Davy shows that chlorine is an element.|
|1811||Amedeo Avogadro claims that
equal volumes of gases should contain equal numbers of molecules.
Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thenard show that hydrocyanic acid does not contain oxygen, refuting Lavoisier’s contention that oxygen is characteristic of acids.
|1815||William Prout claims that hydrogen is an atom and that all other atoms are built up from different numbers of the hydrogen atom (Prout’s hypothesis).|
|1816||Augustin Jean Fresnel demonstrates the wave nature of light.|
|1817||Fresnel and Young show that light waves consist of transverse vibrations.|
|1818||Jons Jacob Berzelius publishes his table of atomic weights.|