Historical Background
Medieval  and Renaissance  (350-1450-1600 AD)

775 AD Jabir ibn Haiyan (Geber) refined Aristotles definition of metallic compositions
900 Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes) gives a systematic classification of  facts described in language almost entirely free from mysticism and ambiguity.

The Latin Summa, a compendium of all known alchemical knowledge is published
1200 Distillation of alcohol in Europe becomes economically important.
1400 The Demise of Alchemy
1455 The Gutenberg Bible, the first European printed book.
1477 Thomas Norton recognizes the importance of color, odor, and taste to chemical analysis.
1597 Galileo builds a crude thermometer using air in a tube.