Wolfgang Pauli (born: April 25th, 1900 / died: December 15th, 1958)
|Wolfgang Pauli was born in Vienna. He received his early education in Vienna before studying at the University of Munich under Arnold Sommerfeld. He obtained his doctor's degree in 1921 and spent a year at the University of Göttingen as assistant to Max Born and a further year with Niels Bohr at Copenhagen. The years 1923-1928 were spent as a lecturer at the University of Hamburg before his appointment as Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. During 1935-1936, he was visiting Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey and he had similar appointments at the University of Michigan (1931 and 1941) and Purdue University (1942). He was elected to the Chair of Theoretical Physics at Princeton in 1940 but he returned to Zurich at the end of World War II.|
|Pauli was outstanding among
the brilliant mid-twentieth century school of physicists. He was recognized
as one of the leaders when, barely out of his teens and still a student, he
published a masterly exposition of the theory of relativity. His exclusion
principle, which is often quoted bearing his name, crystallized the existing
knowledge of atomic structure at the time it was postulated and it led to
the recognition of the two-valued variable required to characterize the state
of an electron.
The principle states that; "No two electrons in an atom can ever be in the same quantum state; that is, no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of quantum numbers". The four quantum numbers are: n, l, ml, ms. For electrons Sharing a specific orbital there first three Quantum numbers; n, l, ml, must be the same; therefore, their values for ms must vary. Given that there are only two possible values for ms in any specific orbital, we can state that; "An atomic orbital can accommodate only two electrons and these electrons must have opposing spins". If this statement were not true then the result would be that all of the electrons would end up in the lowest energy state, also known as the ground state. In effect this would cause a sever change in the way atoms react with one another. Some would even go as far as to say; "Nature as we know it would not exist".
Pauli was the first to recognize the existence of the neutrino, an uncharged and massless particle which carries off energy in radioactive ß-disintegration; this came at the beginning of a great decade, prior to World War II, for his centre of research in theoretical physics at Zurich.
Pauli helped to lay the foundations of the quantum theory of fields and he participated actively in the great advances made in this domain around 1945. Earlier, he had further consolidated field theory by giving proof of the relationship between spin and"statistics" of elementary particles. He has written many articles on problems of theoretical physics, mostly quantum mechanics, in scientific journals of many countries; his Theory of Relativity appears in the Enzyklopaedie der Mathematischen Wissenschaften, Volume 5, Part 2 (1920), his Quantum Theory in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 23 (1926), and his Principles of Wave Mechanics in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 24 (1933).
Pauli was a Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London and a member of the Swiss Physical Society, the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was awarded the Lorentz Medal in 1930.
Wolfgang Pauli married Franciska Bertram on April 4th, 1934.
He died in Zurich on December 15th, 1958.