Lab #7 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions 
General Discussion
In general, we say that a reaction will go to completion (be quantitative) if one of the reactants is completely consumed by the reaction.  There are several ways that a reactant may be consumed.  This will occur if (a) a precipitate is formed, (b) a weakly dissociated substance such as water or a weak acid is formed, and (c) a gas (volatile substance) is formed.
In this experiment you will allow sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to react with hydrochloric acid for the purpose of obtaining a high yield of sodium chloride.
NaHCO3  +  HCl  --------->  NaCl  +  H2O  +  CO2(g)

You will use an accurately measured mass of NaHCO3 and enough dilute HCl to completely react with it.  You will then isolate the NaCl from the other products and determine its mass.  The theoretical yield can be calculated by using the mole and mass ratios obtained from the balanced equation for the reaction.  The percentage yield can then be determined by comparing the experimental yield with the theoretical yield.
1.   To prepare and determine the percentage yield of sodium chloride.
2.   To gain an understanding of mass relationships in chemical reactions.
Materials:  Evaporating dish, watch glass, balance, sodium bicarbonate, hydrochloric acid, wire guaze, ring stand, wash bottle.
Clean and dry an evaporating dish and watch glass, and weigh the combination to the nearest 0.01 g. The watch glass is the cover for the evaporating dish.  Record the data in the data table.
Put about 2 g of pure sodium bicarbonate into the dish.  Weigh the dish, contents, and cover to the nearest 0.01 g.
Cover the dish with the watch glass.  Place the convex side down and the glass slightly off center so that the lip of the dish is uncovered.  Add dilute hydrochloric acid dropwise down the lip of the dish to the bicarbonate in the dish.  Continue this procedure until no more reaction takes place when a drop of acid is added.  Gently swirl the contents of the dish so that all of the solid contacts the liquid.  Do not add excess hydrochloric acid.
Carefully rinse the underneath side of the watch glass with distilled water, a few drops at a time, and collect the washings in the dish.
Heat the evaporating dish, contents and cover with a low flame until the salt is completely  dry.  If the contents of the dish pop and spatter, reduce the flame.
Allow the dish to cool to room temperature and weight it, along with the watch glass cover to the nearest 0.01 g.    Repeat Steps 5 and 6 to be sure constant weight has been obtained.  Two consecutive mass readings should agree within 0.02 g.
Data Table

     Trial 1    Trial 2 
Mass of evaporating dish, watch glass, and NaHCO3  ________ g   ________ g
Mass of evaporating dish and watch glass   ________ g  ________ g
Mass of NaHCO3 used   ________ g  ________ g
Mass of evaporating dish, cover, and NaCl            1st   ________ g  ________ g
                                                                             2nd  ________ g  ________ g
                                                                             3rd   ________ g  ________ g
Mass of salt obtained (experimental)   ________ g  ________ g

1.    Calculate the theoretical mass of NaCl that should have been obtained.  Show mathematical calculations in your report.
2.    Determine the percentage yield.  
Followup Discussion
 The reaction which you used to prepare the salt in this experiment should have proceeded to completion.  This type of reaction is also used to prepare weakly dissociated acids.  It can be seen from the equation that the reactants are a stong acid and the salt of a weak acid.  One product of such a reaction is a weak acid.  We can assume that when a strong acid reacts to form a weak acid that ions of the strong acid are removed from the solution.  Hence,  the reaction proceeds essentially to completion.  In this reaction, the weak acid formed as a product was carbonic acid. H2CO3. However, carbonic acid decomposes into CO2 and H2O.
One of your objectives in this experiment was to compare the experimental and calculated yield of product.  The following example is provided to assist you in making the required calculations.  The theoretical yield is calculated as follows:
NaHCO3  +  HCl  --------->  NaCl  +  H2O  +  CO2(g)

From the balanced equation it can be seen that 1 mole of NaHCO3 produces 1 mole of NaCl. Assume that 2.00 grams of NaHCO3 were used.
Moles of NaHCO3 =           grams         =          2.00 g          =  0.0238  moles
                                    molecular mass         84.01 g/mole
Since the NaHCO3: NaCl mole ratio is 1:1, then 0.0238 moles of NaHCO3 would form 0.0238 moles of NaCl.  The mass of this amount of NaCl would be:
grams of NaCl = n  X  mm  =  0.0238 mol  X  58.44 g/mol = 1.39 grams of NaCl
The theoretical yield of NaCl expected is 1.39 grams.
Assume also that the student obtains 1.30 grams of NaCl. Their percentage yield would then be
                       what they actually obtained    = 1.30 grams * 100%  = 93.4%
                   what they should have obtained     1.39 grams
Followup Problems
What was the cause of the effervescence which you used as an indication of the progress
      of the reaction?
Give two reasons why the reaction in this experiment should have gone to completion.
How can you be sure that your product was completely dry?
If you had added excess hydrochloric acid to the sodium bicarbonate and then evaporated the solution, you would have detected an irritating gas.  What do you think its name and formula would be?
List all the sources of error which you think may have influenced the accuracy of your      experimental results.  Wherever possible, indicate whether each error would have made your result higher or lower.
Consider  the following balanced equation and answer parts (a) through (f).  Show
      calculations for each part.

     3 Ag(s)  +  4 HNO3(aq) ------->  3 AgNO3(aq)  + NO(g)  + 2 H2O(l)

State the number of moles of AgNO3 produced by the reaction of 3 moles of Ag with excess HNO3.
State the number of moles of AgNO3 produced by the reaction of 108 grams of Ag with excess HNO3.
State the number of grams of AgNO3 produced by the reaction of 108 grams of Ag with excess HNO3.
State the number of moles of NO produced as a byproduct of the reaction of 108 grams of Ag with excess HNO3.
State the number of grams of NO produced as a byproduct starting with 108 grams of Ag and excess HNO3.