Organic Chemistry and Heat Unit  
Grade 11 has dealt with the metals and non-metals and the compounds made up from them. Group IV on the periodic table. The Carbon group, was deliberately avoided because of the material involved in ORGANIC chemistry. All of the inorganic chemicals known worldwide number approximately 50,000 but the number of organic compounds number 500,000 and about 2,000 more are added each year.
 
Organic chemistry is the study of compounds made primarily from carbon. These compounds have unique properties based mainly on the fact that carbon can bond to itself covalently almost indefinitely. The most important aspect of the atoms involved in organic chemicals are their valence bond electrons.
 
A quick review is needed. Carbon has four valence electrons which results in 4 covalent bonds. Hydrogen has only one electron and has only one covalent bond. Oxygen has 6 valence electrons but 4 are bound up in two lone pairs leaving only 2 single bonding electrons. Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons but 2 are bound in a lone pair leaving 3 covalent bond electrons. Most of the other elements follow this same general rule.
 
       |                   /
   - C -    H-   -N      -O-    -S-     Cl-   Br-
       |                   \
 
The very simplest of all the organic compounds is methane.
 
It can be shown in one of three ways.

Molecular                       Structural                            Skeletal
Formula                          Formula                              Formula
                                            H
                                             |                                              |
   CH4                             H - C - H                                   - C -
                                             |                                              |
                                            H
 

Each type of formula has its own benefits. Molecular formulas show what is in a compound but very little about how the atoms are put together. The structural formula shows the position of each atom and its relationship to every other atom, but it is time consuming to write out. The skeletal equation shows all covalent bonds, and all atoms except hydrogen.
 
Organic chemistry uses certain prefixes that indicate the number of carbon atoms in a particular molecule. You should memorize these if you have not already done so.
 
Number Prefix
1     metha
2     etha
3     propa
4     buta
5     penta
6     hexa
7     hepta
8     octa
9     nona
10   deca
11   undeca
12   dodeca
 
There are of course more but these will be sufficient for this course.