Reactions in Solution  
1.  Ammonium sulphate is a "high-nitrogen" fertilizer.  It is manufactured by reacting sulphuric acid with ammonia.  In a laboratory study of this process, 50.0 mL of sulphuric acid reacts with 24.4 mL of a  2.20 M ammonia solution (ammonium hydroxide) to yield the product ammonium sulphate in solution.  Calculate the molar concentration of the sulphuric acid used.

2. Slaked lime is sometimes used in water treatment plants to clarify water for residential use.  The lime is added to an aluminum sulphate solution in the water.  Fine particles in the water stick to the floc precipitate produced, and settle out with it.  Calculate the volume of 0.0250 M calcium hydroxide solution that can be completely reacted with 25.0 mL of 0.25 M aluminum sulphate solution.

3. In designing a solution stoichiometry experiment for her class to perform, a chemistry teacher wants 75.0 mL of 0.200 M iron(III) chloride solution to react completely with an excess of 0.250 M sodium carbonate solution.

a)   What is the minimum volume of this sodium carbonate solution needed?

b)    What would be a reasonable volume of this sodium carbonate solution to use in  this experiment? Provide your reasoning.

4. A student wishes to precipitate all the lead(II) ions from 2.0 L of solution containing, among other substances, 0.34 M Pb(NO3)2(aq).   The purpose of this reaction is to make the filtrate solution non-toxic.  If the student intends to precipitate lead(II) sulphate, suggest and calculate an appropriate solute, and calculate the required mass of this solute.

5. Copper(II) ions can be precipitated from waste solution by adding aqueous sodium carbonate.

a)   What is the minimum volume of 1.25 M Na2CO3(aq) needed to precipiate all the copper(II) ions in 4.54 L of 0.0875 M CuSO4(aq) solution?

b)   Suggest a suitable volume to use for this reaction.

6. A 24.89 piece of zinc is placed into a beaker containing 350 mL of hydrochloric acid.  The next day the remaining zinc is removed, dried, weighed, and found to have a mass of 21.62 grams.  Determine the concentration of zinc chloride in the beaker.

7. How many millilitres of 0.300 M NiCl2(aq)  solution are required to completely react with 25.0 mL of 0.100 M Na2CO3(aq) solution?  How many grams of NiCO3(s) will be formed?

8. How many millilitres of 0.400 M CaCl2(aq) would be needed to react completely with 35.0 mL of 
0.600 M AgNO3(aq) solution?

9. Suppose that 30.0 mL of 0.400 M NaCl(aq) is added to 30.0 mL of 0.300 M AgNO3(aq).

a)   How many moles and grams of AgCl(s) would precipitate? 

b)   What would be the concentrations of each of the remaining ions in the solution after reaction?
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