Carboxylic Acid propanoic acid
|The -COOH group can only exist at the end of a molecule for the
same reasons as those of the aldehydes. The root parent name of the above
was propane and the "e" is dropped and "oic acid" is added. If you have two
-COOH groups in a molecule you have a "dioic acid". There is a three carboxylic
acid molecule known. It is known as citric acid in citrus fruits.
Esters can only be found in the interiors of a molecule. An ester is made by dehydration of a water molecule from between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. When naming the ester molecule the alcohol portion is named first.
|eg. methyl ethanoate|
|Methyl methanoate is made by reacting methyl alcohol or methanol
with methanoic acid (old name formic acid). The alcohol label is dropped
and the "ic acid" is replaced by "ate". The names are not joined indicating
they came from two separate starting molecules.
Examples of some of the more common esters are:
|ethyl formate||C3H6O2||Fruity, rum-like|
|ethyl acetate||C4H8O2||wine, brandy|
|ethyl butyrate||C6H12O2||buttery, fruity|
|ethyl valerate (ethyl pentanoate)||C7H14O2||apple|
|ethyl hexanoate||C8H16O2||apple, banana, pineapple|
|ethyl octanate||C10H20O2||cognac, apricot|
|ethyl decanoate||C12H24O2||cognac, nutty|
|methyl propionate||C4H8O2||rum / black current|
|methyl butyrate||C5H10O2||apple, banana|
-O- found only in the interior of two longer chains.
|eg. CH3CH2-O-CH3 ethyl methyl ether or methoxy ethane|
|CH3-O-CH3 dimethyl ether or methoxy methane|
|CH3CH2-O-CH2CH3 diethyl ether or ethoxy ethane|
|Please note that there are no ketone groups on either side. If
there were then it would be an acid or maybe a ester. Watch out for these
Acid anhydrides are made by the
dehydration of water from between two carboxylic acids.
|methanoic propanoic anhydride|
|Amide eg . propamide|
|Amides are found in many biological compounds. They are a major
part of amino acids (proteins) and urea (urine).
|Amine -NH2 without an "O" The key to
these compounds is to remember that the N atom has three possible bonds.
There are three types of amines based upon these bonding patterns. They are
named depending upon the carbon to which they are attached.