Useful and Necessary Formulas
1.  
Electromagnetic Radiation

a)   Speed of Light
c = λ * v

b)   Wavelength
λ = c / v

c)    Frequency
v = c / λ

d)    Energy in a photon
E = h * v



2. Concentration and Molar Mass

a)    Density (D) D = m / V

b)    Moles (n) n = g / mm 

c)    Moles (# of particles) n = number of particles / Avogadro's number

d)    Moles (solution) n = concentration • volume

e)    Moles (gas equation) n = PV / RT

f)     Molarity (M) M = n / volume

g)    Molar mass (mm) mm = m / n



3. Gases

a)    Boyle's Law P1 • V1 = P2 • V2

b)    Charles' Law V1 • T2 = V2 • T1

c)     Combined Gas Law P1 • V1 / T1 = P2 • V2 / T2

d)     Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT

e)     Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures PT = P1 + P2 + P3 + ..... + Pn



4. Acids and Bases

a)       pH pH = -log[H+1]

b)      pOH pOH = -log[OH-1]

c)      [H3O+1] [H3O+1] = 10-pH

d)      [OH-1] [OH-1] = 10-pOH



5. Heat

a)     Quantity of Heat (Q) Q = m • c •  Δt

b)     Quantity of Heat (fusion) Q = m • Lf

c)     Quantity of Heat (vaporization) Q = m • Lv

d)     Celsius to Kelvin K = oC + 273.15

e)     Kelvin to Celcius oC = K - 273.15



6. Mathematics

a)      Quadratic Equation x = -b + (b2 - 4ac)-2 / 2a