Section 1.2  Questions - Page 12
a)  inference

b)  observation

c)  observation

d)  inference

e)  observation
A theory is an explanation of a large number of related observations.  To come up with a theory, scientists must use their imaginations as well as empirical collected from experiments.  Even though a theory is grounded in observation, since it is an idea, it cannot be proven.  Many theories are accepted as true, however, since a large amount of experimental evidence supports them.  The more experimental testing a theory can withstand, the more credible it becomes.
Models can help convey an idea or a concept.  A model is a visualization of a theory.  scientists use models to help describe and explore their ideas.
empirical knowledge -------comes directly from --------->     observation
       ^                                                                                           |
        |                                                                leads to the          |
        |                                                          development of          |
        |  based on ideas                                                                inference
        |  created from                                                   /
        |                                                      /
        |                                       /    leads to the development of
theoretical knowledge /                         
        |  is simplified and
        |  presented in the
        |  form of a
In a court of law, the prosecution and the defence are both interested in only the presentation of facts.  If witnesses make inferences, they are considered to be offering an opinion, which could sway a judge or jury.  Also, the opinion may be invalid because witnesses may be misinterpreting that they observed.  Unless the witness is an "expert", the opinions are struck from court records.
Qualitative analysis is empirical because it is based on the physical and chemical properties of substances.  Scientists compare the physical and chemicals properties of an unidentified sample of matter to those of already identified substance in order to identify the unknown.