Are You Ready?  Page 176
1
a)  The gas is oxygen

b)  The gas is carbon dioxide

c)  The gas is hydrogen

d)  the gas is water vapour
2.
a)   HCl(aq) +  NaOH(aq)  ---->  NaCl(aq)  + H2O(l)

b)   H2SO4(aq)  +  2 KOH(aq)  --->  K2SO4(aq)  + 2 H2O(l)
3
a)   Two chlorine atoms will form a covalent bond because they are both non-metals and share electrons.

b) Potassium and iodine will form an ionic bond because potassium is a metal and iodine is a non-metal.  Potassium will transfer its valence electron to iodine.  The electrostatic force of attraction between the two resulting ions will form the ionic bond.

c)  Carbon and oxygen are non-metals.  They will share electrons and therefore form covalent bonds.

d)  Magnesium and fluorine will form ionic bonds.  Magnesium will lose two of its electrons to two fluorine atoms.  the electrostatic force of attraction between the resulting ions will form an ionic bond.
5
a)  O-H

b)  C-O

c)  C-H

d)  O-H

e)  H-F
6
a)  4 NH3(g)  +  5 O2(g) --->  4 NO(g)  +  6 H2O(l)

b)  3 NO2(g)  +  H2O(l)  ---->  2 HNO3(g)  +  NO(g)

c)   C12H22O11(s)  +  12 O2(g) --->  12 CO2(g)  +  11 H2O(l)

d)   C6H6(l)  +  2 Cl2(g) --->  C6H3Cl3(l)  +  3 HCl(g)
7.
Class and type of compound
WHMIS symbol
Risks
Precautions
Class A

could explode due to pressure

could explode if heated or dropped

possible hazard from both the force of explosion and the release of contents
ensure container is always secured

store in designated areas

do not drop or allow to fall
Class B

may ignite spontaneously

may release flammable products if allowed to degrade or when exposed to water
store in designated areas

avoid heating

avoid sparks and flames

ensure that electrical sources are safe
Class B

can cause skin or eyes burns

increased fire and explosion hazards

may cause combustibles to explode or react violently

store away from combustibles

store in container that will not rust or oxidize
Class D

may cause death or permanent injury

may cause birth defects or sterility

small volumes have a toxic effect

may cause cancer

may be sensitizers causing allergies
work in a well ventilated area

store in appropriate designated areas

avoid direct contact


Class E

eye and skin irritation on exposure

severe burns/tissue damage on longer exposure

lung damage if inhaled

may cause blindness if contact with eyes

environmental damage from fumes
use breathing apparatus

work in a well ventilated area

avoid all direct body contact