Section 1.11  -  Page 35
1.  
An electrolyte is a compound that, when dissolved in water, produces a solution that conducts electricity. A non-electrolyte is a compound that when dissolved in water, produces a solution that does not conduct electricity.
2.
 Atoms have a tendency to form ions when their outermost shells are not full and they need to gain or lose electrons in order to attain a stable octet structure.  metals have a tendency to lose their valence electrons to attain a full outer shell and become cations, whereas nonmetals tend to gain electrons to fill their outer shells and become anions.
3.
Cations and anions form ionic bonds.  metals lose electrons and become cations, whereas nonmetals gain electrons and become anions.  The strong electrostatic force of attraction between cations and anions results in the formation of an ionic bond.
4.
a) K with 1 electron

b)  Cs with 1 electron

c)   I with 7 electrons (3 lone pairs and 1 single electron)

d)  Si with 4 electrons  (4 single electrons)

e)  Sb with 5 electrons (1 lone pair and 3 single electons)

f)   Kr with 8 electrons (4 lone pairs)

g)  Ba with 2 electrons (2 single electrons)
5.
a) H1+

b) K1+

c)  F1-

d)  Mg2+

e)  S2-
6.
a)  [H]1+

b)  [K]1+

c)   [F]1-  (the F has 4 lone pairs of electrons around it)

d)   [Mg]2+

e)   [S]2-  (the S has 4 lone pairs of electrons around it)
All the Lewis symbols have full outer shells (consisting of eight electrons) Positive ions have emptied their outermost shells, and negative ions have filled their outermost shells. The rule that is being followed is the octet rule.
8.
a)  Obtain a small sample of an ionic solid, such as a piece of chalk (calcium carbonate, CaCO3)  Use a low-voltage conductivity apparatus to test the electrical conductivity of the sample.  Record your observations.

b)  In liquid form, ionic compounds conduct electricity

c)   Ionic compounds are solids at room temperature.  A solids, they are non-conductors of electricity.  HOwever, as liquids, they conduct electricity quite well.  Some examples of molten ionic compounds are sodium chloride (melts at 801oC) and aluminium oxide (melts at 2000oC).  When dissolved i water, ionic compounds produce solutions that conduct electricity.

d)   In the solid state, ionic compounds do not conduct electricity.  In ionic solids, the ions are tightly held in the crystal structure, so they are not free to move and carry electric charge.  When an ionic compound is melted, or dissolved (dissociated) in water, the attractive forces are overcome and the crystal breaks up.  The ions are now free to move and carry electric charge.